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Chinese American Memory of World War II : Xiaohua Ma | BookWay書店 外国語版 学術研究出版





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タイトル: Chinese American Memory of World War II

著者: Xiaohua Ma  書店: BookWay書店 外国語版 学術研究出版 

カテゴリー: 研究・ノンフィクション
ページ数: 176
サイズ: A5


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本の要約

On June 18, 2012, U.S. Congress unanimously passed resolution (H. R. 683), which apologized for the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Acts and expressed regret for all the injustice inflicted on Chinese immigrants and Chinese-Americans during the Chinese exclusion period from 1875 to 1943. This resolution was introduced by Chinese-American Congresswoman Judy Chu (Democrat, CA), the first female Chinese-American elected to Congress. It was first introduced as H. R. 282 in May 2011 by Congresswoman Chu with her original co-sponsors, Congressmen Judy Biggert (Republican, IL), Mile Coffman (Republican, CO) and Dana Rohrabacher (Republican, CA). The primary sponsors in the Senate were Senators Scott Brown (Republican, MA) and Dianne Feinstein (Democrat, CA). Congresswoman Chu made a statement shortly after the resolution was passed on June 18. "The Chinese Exclusion Act enshrined injustice into our legal code - it stopped the Chinese, and the Chinese alone, from immigrating to the United States, from becoming naturalized citizens and even having the right to vote," she said, "The last generation of people personally affected by these laws is leaving us, and finally Congress has expressed the sincere regret that Chinese Americans deserve and reaffirmed our commitment to the civil rights of all people." Since the Chinese Exclusion Act was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1882, Chinese entry to the country was strictly prohibited. Chinese immigrants and Chinese-Americans residing in the United States faced severe discrimination and racial prejudice. Many families were split, with wives and children stranded overseas. They had been fighting mechanisms of prejudice, exclusion, and legislative discrimination that prevented them from participating mainstream society during the exclusion period. The repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Acts in 1943 permitted Chinese immigrants become naturalized citizens. It also allowed a national quota of 105 Chinese immigrants per year. The repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Acts had far reaching significance. From a legal perspective, the repeal of the anti-Chinese immigration legislation marked a historical turning point in American history, since it codified, for the first time, the idea that Chinese immigrants were accepted by American society, despite the fact that the quota granted to them was at first only symbolic. After the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Acts in 1943, Chinese-Americans continued to fight for legal equality and immigration reform in order to allow family reunification. Chinese-Americans are a small percentage of the U.S. population, but their numbers are steadily increasing - from 230,000 in 1960 to more than 4 million today. They constitute 1.2% of the total U.S. population according to the 2010 U.S. Census. Chinese-Americans have been the fastest growing group in the United States. They get along well with other racial groups in the United States. Chinese-Americans are highly educated and earn higher incomes when compared to other racial groups in the United States. The educational achievement of Chinese-Americans are one of the highest among all racial groups in the country. The evolution has been spurred by changes in American immigration policies, labor markets and the increasing economic development of China as well. The history of Chinese-Americans is the history of dreams, hard-work, prejudice, discrimination, persistence and triumph of the American spirit.

著者のプロフィール

Xiaohua Ma
Associate Professor.
Osaka Kyoiku University.

馬 暁華
大阪教育大学准教授